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Cold-forming with Efficient Material Processing

Release time:2016-12-15 09:39 Click:65
Cold-Forming
 
Cold-forming is a high-speed metal-forming process where coiled wire at ambient temperature is precisely sheared to length, and then passed through a succession of tool and die cavities to displace the working metal.
Within a short period of time, a large number of cutoffs can either be upset, formed to be longer or shorter in length, or small amounts of material can be removed by trimming or piercing.
In this process, metal is forced beyond its yield (elastic) limit and retains its altered shape upon removal from the die. The metal should not be forced beyond its tensile strength, otherwise cracks would occur (the exception is when trimming or piercing).
Historically, cold-forming has been an experience-based technology, but this is changing as new computer-aided analytical tools are constantly being developed to facilitate efficient material processing.
 
Cold-forming benefits
 
Apart from large quantities due to the high production speed, forming to net/near-net shape is possible to eliminate or reduce secondary operations. Furthermore, the finely tuned machines allow for a high volume consistency, leading to material savings and reduced scrap volumes. The improvement in mechanical properties, e.g. greater strength-to-weight ratio, renders another positive effect.
Because of these benefits, cold-forming can be an interesting alternative to hot forging, casting, sintering, machining, welding or stamping.
Cold-forming equipment is typically a horizontal press. Machines come in many variations, with diverse criteria being important according to the type of parts to be produced. Materials that can be cold-formed include carbon steels, stainless steels, brass, copper, bronze, precious metals, aluminum and nickel alloys.
Cold-forming the chosen material into a given part shape is governed by that material's structural properties. They are all based on 3 basic forming methods:
•     Forward extrusion reduces the diameter, with the material either being open or trapped to flow into the cavity of lesser diameter.
•     Backward extrusion has the material flow backwards around a penetrating punch - a method to form hollow spaces.
•     Upsetting is a method to form heads on fasteners, where material is upset at the face of dies (e.g. bolts).
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